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FST00301 - QUALITY EVALUATION OF ABARI ENRICHED WITH BAMBARA NUT


CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of Study

Snack foods are an integral part of the diet and have been, over a period of time, commercially exploited on a wide scale. Increasing awareness amongst the consuming public demands the production of high protein, cost effective, convenient and highly acceptable snacks. Meals are everyday eating events structured by the frequency of food consumption, by food items appropriate to a meal and even by the order of dishes in the menu (Mäkelä, 2000). However, snacks are becoming increasingly popular (Devine et al., 2003) and may be added to the diet or consumed in place of traditional meals (Bellisle et al., 1997). The concept of snacks is complex; it may comprise confectionery items or beverages only, “a snacking food” (like chips) or even light meals (Chamontin et al., 2003).

Abari is a food made with fresh corn. It is widely eaten in western and southern part of Nigeria. In Yoruba, it is known as Sapala and in Igbo, Ikpakpala. It is a food that is made in the same form with moin-moin from cow pea. The compositional characteristics of abari have been found to be rich in carbohydrate.

Bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) is an indigenous African crop that is grown across the continent (Mkandawire, 2007). Though, Bambara groundnut is grown extensively in Nigeria (Enwere, 1998), it is one of the under-utilized legumes in the country. Nigeria produced over 100,000 metric tons yearly, followed closely by Niger with 30,000 metric tons and Ghana 20,000 metric tons (Asiedu, 1999). In Africa, Bambara groundnut is the third most important legume after peanut and bambara nut (Mkandawire, 2007). The crop has a number of production advantages in that it can grow on poor soils with little rainfall and can produce substantial yield under better conditions. It is nutritionally superior to many legumes and is the preferred crop for many local people (Linnemann, 1990; Brough and Azam-Ali, 1992). Bambara is a rich source of protein (20-25%) and its seeds are valued for their nutritional and economic importance (Mkandawire, 2007). It contains about 60% carbohydrate; its protein is reported to be higher in the essential amino acid methionine than other grain legumes (Stephens, 2003) and contains 6-12% oil which is half of peanuts. The gross energy value of Bambara groundnut is greater than that of other common pulses such as bambara nut and pigeon pea (FAO., 1992). In Nigeria, freshly harvested pods or seeds are cooked, shelled and eaten as snacks (Alobo, 1999) or milled into nutritious flour used for preparation of “moin moin” analogue called “Okpa” which is very popular among the Igbo tribe of the Eastern Nigeria (Enwere, 1998; Olapade and Adetuyi, 2007) but cannot keep for more than 12 h. Since, Bambara is very nutritious and of economic importance, it could be utilized in the development of more acceptable shelf stable food products such as Abari. Presently, the commonly consumed traditional snacks are produced by germination, frying, roasting, boiling, baking, drying and these includes snacks such as akara, okpa, dodo, dodo-ikire, moin-moin, cassava chips, tapioca, roasted groundnut, ekoki, massa, melon cake, ikpan, sinasir etc. (Adelaja et al., 2010; Okafor, 2012). Some of these traditional snacks are unhygienically produced and packaged and are not shelf stable, keeping only for few hours or days at ambient temperature. So, Bambara could be utilized in the production of more shelf stable, hygienically processed, well packaged and acceptable product such as Abari.

Maize is prepared and consumed in a multitude of ways which vary from region to region or from one ethnic group to the other. For instance, maize grains are prepared by boiling or roasting as paste (‘eko’), ‘abado’ ,and ‘elekute’ in Nigeria and ‘kenke’ in Ghana, or as popcorn which is eaten all over West Africa. Traditional methods of preparations uses of maize are restricted to definite localities or ethnic groups. This trend was also noted in the traditional preparation and uses of cassava (Manihot esculentaCrantz, Euphorbiaceae) by Etejere and Bhat (1995).

1.2       Justification

Abari is a food made with fresh corn. It is a food that is made in the same form with moin-moin (from cow pea) but bambara groundnut is one of the under-utilized legumes in the country and it is a rich source of protein (20-25%) and its seeds are valued for their nutritional and economic importance (Mkandawire, 2007). So substituting bambara groundnut nut with maize in proportion will increase the nutritional content particularly in protein of the food since corn is a food rich in carbohydrate and bambara is very rich in protein. Therefore this project is to study the production and quality evaluation of ‘Abari’enriched with bambara nut

1.3       Aim and Objectives

The aim of this project is to study the production and quality evaluation of ‘Abari’enriched with bambara nut

The objectives are

  1. To determine some chemical composition of ‘abari’ enriched with bambaranut.
  2. To determine sensory attribute of ‘abari’ enriched with bambaranut.